Cardiovascular Disease

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the [2]

The underlying mechanisms varies depending on the disease in question. IHD, stroke, and PAD involve atherosclerosis. This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol, among others. High blood pressure results in 13% of CVD deaths, while tobacco results in 9%, diabetes 6%, lack of exercise 6% and obesity 5%. Others such as RHD may follow untreated streptococcal infections of the throat.[1]

It is estimated that 90% of CVD is preventable.[1]

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally.[11]

Types

[12]

  no data
  less than 70
  70–140
  140–210
  210–280
  280–350
  350–420
  420–490
  490–560
  560–630
  630–700
  700–770
  more than 770

Risk factors

There are several risk factors for heart diseases: age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive [18] Some of these risk factors, such as age, gender or family history, are immutable; however, many important cardiovascular risk factors are modifiable by lifestyle change, social change, drug treatment and prevention of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes.

Age

Calcified heart of an older woman with cardiomegaly.

Age is by far the most important risk factor in developing cardiovascular or heart diseases, with approximately a tripling of risk with each decade of life.[21]

Multiple explanations have been proposed to explain why age increases the risk of cardiovascular/heart diseases. One of them is related to serum cholesterol level.[22]

Aging is also associated with changes in the mechanical and structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance and may subsequently lead to coronary artery disease.[23]

Sex

Men are at greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal women.[25]

Coronary heart diseases are 2 to 5 times more common among middle-aged men than women.[22]

Among men and women, there are notable differences in body weight, height, body fat distribution, heart rate, stroke volume, and arterial compliance.[23]

Tobacco

Cigarettes are the major form of smoked tobacco.[28]

Physical inactivity

Insufficient physical activity (defined as less than 5 x 30 minutes of moderate activity per week, or less than 3 x 20 minutes of vigorous activity per week) is currently the fourth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide.[27]

Diet

High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans-fats and salt, and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish are linked to cardiovascular risk, although whether all these associations are causal is disputed. The World Health Organization attributes approximately 1.7 million deaths worldwide to low fruit and vegetable consumption.[34]

The relationship between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is complex, and may depend on the amount of alcohol consumed. There is a direct relationship between high levels of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease.[36]

Socioeconomic disadvantage

Cardiovascular disease affects low- and middle-income countries even more than high-income countries.[40]

Air pollution

[43]

Tests

Pathophysiology

Density-Dependent Colour Scanning Electron Micrograph SEM (DDC-SEM) of cardiovascular calcification, showing in orange calcium phosphate spherical particles (denser material) and, in green, the extracellular matrix (less dense material).[44]

Population-based studies show that atherosclerosis, the major precursor of cardiovascular disease, begins in childhood. The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Study demonstrated that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 7–9 years.[48]

This is extremely important considering that 1 in 3 people die from complications attributable to atherosclerosis. In order to stem the tide, education and awareness that cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat, and measures to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken.

Obesity and [53]

Screening

Screening [54]

Additionally echocardiography, myocardial perfusion imaging, and cardiac stress testing is not recommended in those at low risk who do not have symptoms.[56]

Some [58]

Prevention

Currently practiced measures to prevent cardiovascular disease include:

  • A low-fat, high-fiber [61]
  • Tobacco cessation and avoidance of second-hand smoke[59]
  • Limit alcohol consumption to the recommended daily limits;[64]
  • Lower blood pressures, if elevated
  • Decrease body fat if overweight or obese[65]
  • Increase daily activity to 30 minutes of vigorous exercise per day at least five times per week (multiply by three if horizontal);[59]
  • Reduce sugar consumptions
  • Decrease [72]

For adults without a known diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or cardiovascular disease, routine counseling to advise them to improve their diet and increase their physical activity has not been found to significantly alter behavior, and thus is not recommended.[75]

Diet

A diet high in fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and [82]

Total fat intake does not appear to be an important risk factor.[93]

The effect of a [97]

Supplements

While a [106]

Medication

[108]

[112]

Management

Cardiovascular disease is treatable with initial treatment primarily focused on diet and lifestyle interventions.[1]

Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for cardiovascular diseases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[113]

  no data
  <900
  900-1650
  1650-2300
  2300-3000
  3000-3700
  3700-4400
  4400-5100
  5100-5800
  5800-6500
  6500-7200
  7200–7900
  >7900

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. In 2008, 30% of all global death is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Death caused by cardiovascular diseases are also higher in low- and middle-income countries as over 80% of all global death caused by cardiovascular diseases occurred in those countries. It is also estimated that by 2030, over 23 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases each year.

Research

The first studies on cardiovascular health were performed in year 1949 by Jerry Morris using occupational health data and were published in year 1958.[114] The causes, prevention, and/or treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease remain active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies being published on a weekly basis.

A fairly recent emphasis is on the link between low-grade inflammation that hallmarks atherosclerosis and its possible interventions. [117]

Some areas currently being researched include the possible links between infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae (a major cause of pneumonia) and coronary artery disease. The Chlamydia link has become less plausible with the absence of improvement after antibiotic use.[118]

Several research also investigated the benefits of melatonin on cardiovascular diseases prevention and cure. Melatonin is a pineal gland secretion and it is shown to be able to lower total cholesterol, very-low-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the blood plasma of rats. Reduction of blood pressure is also observed when pharmacological doses are applied. Thus, it is deemed to be a plausible treatment for hypertension. However, further research needs to be conducted to investigate the side-effects, optimal dosage, etc. before it can be licensed for use.[119]

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External links

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Cardiovascular Disease, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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